Many managers don’t understand what exactly risk analysis is.  We put together some of the most common questions with responses for you.

What does the risk percentage mean?

The risk percentage approximates the on-time probability for an order with appropriate consideration of the number of replications or “experiments.”  It tells the user how confident they can be in meeting the due date given how many trials they have conducted.

How does Simio calculate the on-time probability?

Simio adjusts from a base rate of 50% with each risk replication.  If an order is on time in an individual replication, Simio updates the probability, increasing it closer to 100%.  If the order is late, Simio decreases the probability closer to 0%.  Each replication is an experiment that provides new information about the likelihood of success or failure.  More experiments mean more confidence in the answer.

Why is the base rate 50%?

Before any plan is generated or any activity is simulated, there is no information about the order other than the possible outcomes.  Because there are only two outcomes that matter (on time or not), the base rate is set to 50%.

I have an overdue order in my system.  Why is it not always 0%?

Because the calculation is an adjustment of a base rate of 50%, Simio needs a lot of evidence before it will guarantee that an order will be late (or on time for that matter).  If the user runs 1000 replications, and the result is late in all of them, Simio will reflect a 0% on time probability.

What formula does Simio use to calculate the probability?

For the statistics experts, Simio uses a binomial proportion confidence internal formula known as the Wilson Score.  We report the midpoint of the confidence interval as the risk measure.

Why not just report the outcome of the replications as the probability (e.g., if 9 of 10 are on time, report 90% on time probability)?

This was the original implementation.  However, it gives a false sense of confidence and can be misleading.  A single replication would always yield either 100% on time or 0% on time.  We wanted the answer to also give decision makers a sense of how confident they could be in the answer.  Using the Wilson Score, a single replication will yield a result of 60% at best and 40% at worst (using 95% confidence level).  This helps the decision maker identify that they have a very small sample of data and would encourage them to run additional replications.

Can you give me an example of how this works?

Risk analysis can be demonstrated using any scheduling example.  It is best viewed in the Entity Gantt.  In the screenshots below, we’ve included 2 orders from the Candy Manufacturing Scheduling example.  One of the orders is overdue (will be late always), and the other has plenty of time (will be on time always).

The base rate is 50%.  After 1 replication, Simio updates the probabilities.  Order 1 now has a 60% on time probability.  Order 2 has a 40% on time probability.

After 2 replications, 67% and 33%:

After 5 replications, 78% and 22%:

After 100 replications, 98% and 2%:

Finally, after 1000 replications, 100% and 0%:

How many replications should I run?

By default, we suggest 10 replications (and 95% confidence level).  With these settings, a risk measure of 86% is a good sign, while 14% is a bad one.  Beyond the default settings, there are several additional factors which are dependent on the situation and use case.  One of these factors is slack time (the time between estimated completion and due date).  On the Gantt, slack time is the distance between the grey marker and the green marker.  If the slack time is large, a single replication may suffice.  If the slack time is small, additional replications will help identify if the order is in trouble or not.

Now that I know my risk, what can I do about it?

Depending on your position in the organization (and therefore your decision rights), you can change either the design or operation of the system.  Example design changes include things like adding another assembly line or buying another forklift.  These changes are long term and may require approvals for capital expenditure (which the model facilitates by quantifying the impact of the expenditure).  Example operational changes include things like adding overtime, expediting a material, or changing order priorities, quantities, due dates etc.  Bridging the gap between design and operation are the dispatching rules, which relate to overall business objectives.  They are also flexible parameters which control how Simio chooses the next job from a queue (e.g., earliest due date, least setup, critical ratio, etc.).  All of these parameters influence risk and can be changed, provided that the user has the authority to change them.

Will Simio choose the best design and operation for me?

Decision rights and business processes have far reaching consequences.  A floor manager can probably authorize overtime if the schedule looks risky.  He probably cannot buy a piece of equipment.  To change a priority or a due date, he probably needs to consult with the commercial team and/or account managers.  To expedite a material, he probably needs to communicate with the procurement team.  To make a capital expenditure (i.e., change system design), he probably needs executive/financial approval.  Our solution respects those boundaries.  We treat priorities, due dates, etc. as inputs rather than outputs.  Any of these parameters can be changed by the appropriate decision maker.  They should not be changed by the tool without consent.  Simio assists the decision maker (at any level in the organization) by exposing the true consequences.

With so many choices, how can I quickly explore the consequences across multiple scenarios?

The experiment runner is used to explore consequences (which we call Responses) across multiple scenarios where a user can influence the parameters mentioned above (which we call Controls).  If the solution space is very large (i.e., there are many controls with a wide range of acceptable values), we recommend using OptQuest to automate the search of the solution space based on single or multiple objectives (e.g., low cost and high service level).  OptQuest uses a Tabu search which learns how the control values influence the objectives as it explores the solution space.

How often should I run these type of experiments?

Experiments are most relevant to design choices.  Operational decisions have many hard constraints which cannot be easily influenced.  For example, though Simio will allow you to adjust material receipt dates of critical materials and show you the impact on the schedule, many of them are inflexible and out of control of planner or even the business.  If you ask OptQuest how much inventory you would like to have, it will tell you, but this information adds no value because it is not actionable in the short term.  The planners need to work with what they have and make the best of it.  In practical application, we recommend running large experiments to explore design decisions on a monthly or quarterly basis.

# Effective Factory Scheduling with a Simio Digital Twin

Introduction

In today’s world, companies compete not only on price and quality, but on their ability to reliably deliver product on time.   A good production schedule, therefore, influences a company’s throughput, sales and customer satisfaction.  Although companies have invested millions in information technology for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES), the investment has fallen short on detailed production scheduling, causing most companies to fall back on manual methods involving Excel and planning boards.  Meanwhile, industry trends towards reduced inventory, shorter lead times, increased product customization, SKU proliferation, and flexible manufacturing are making the task more complicated.  Creating a feasible plan requires simultaneous consideration of materials, labor, equipment, and demand.  This bar is simply too high for any manual planning method.  The challenge of creating a reliable plan requires a digital transformation which can support automated and reliable scheduling.

Central to the idea of effective factory scheduling is the concept of an actionable schedule.  An actionable schedule is one that fully accounts for the detailed constraints and operating rules in the system and can therefore be executed in the factory by the production staff.   An issue with many scheduling solutions is that they ignore one or more detailed constraints, and therefore cannot be executed as specified on the factory floor.  A non-actionable schedule requires the operators to step in and override the planned schedule to accommodate the actual constraints of the system.   At this point the schedule is no longer being followed, and local decisions are being made that impact the system KPIs in ways that are not visible to the operators.

A second central idea of effective scheduling is properly accounting for variability and unplanned events in the factory and the corresponding detrimental impact on throughput and on-time delivery.  Most scheduling approaches completely ignore this critical element of the system, and therefore produce optimistic schedules that cannot be met in practice.   What starts off looking like a feasible schedule degrades overtime as machines break, workers call off sick, materials arrive late, rework is required, etc.  The optimistic promises that were made cannot be kept.

A third consideration is the effect of an infeasible schedule on the supply chain plan.  Factory scheduling is only the final step in the production planning process, which begins with supply chain planning based on actual and/or forecast demand.   The supply chain planning process generates production orders and typically establishes material requirements for each planning period across the entire production network.  The production orders that are generated for each factory in the network during this process are based on a rough-cut model of the production capacity.  The supply chain planning process has very limited visibility of the true constraints of the factory, and the resulting production requirements often overestimate the capacity of the factory.  Subsequently, the factory schedulers must develop a detailed plan to meet these production requirements given the actual constraints of the equipment, workforce, etc.  The factory adjustments to make the plan actionable will not be transparent to the supply chain planners.  This creates a disconnect in a core business planning function where enormous spending occurs.

In this paper we will discuss the solution to these challenges, the Process Digital Twin, and the path to get there.  The Simio Digital Twin solution is built on the patented Simio Risk-based Planning and Scheduling (RPS) software.   We will begin by describing and comparing the three common approaches to factory scheduling.  We will then discuss in detail the advantages of a process Digital Twin for factory scheduling built on Simio RPS.

Factory Scheduling Approaches

Let’s begin by discussion the three most common approaches to solving the scheduling problem in use today:  1) manual methods using planning boards or spreadsheets, 2) resource models, and 3) process Digital Twin.

Manual Methods

The most common method in use today for factory scheduling is the manual method, typically augmented with spreadsheets or planning boards.   The use of manual scheduling is typically not the companies first choice but is the result of failure to succeed with automated systems.

Manually generating a schedule for a complex factory is a very challenging task, requiring a detailed understanding of all the equipment, workforce, and operational constraints.  Five of the most frustrating drawbacks include:

• It is difficult for a scheduler to consider all the critical constraints.   While schedulers can typically focus on primary constraints, they are often unaware – or must ignore – secondary constraints, and these omissions lead to a non-actionable schedule.
• Manual scheduling typically takes hours to complete, and the moment any change occurs the schedule becomes non-actionable.
• The quality of the schedule is entirely dependent on the knowledge and skill of the scheduler.  If the scheduler retires is out for vacation or illness, the backup scheduler may be less skilled and the KPIs may degrade.
• It is virtually impossible for the scheduler to account for the degrading effect of variation on the schedule and therefore provide confident completion times for orders.
• As critical jobs become late, manual schedulers resort to bumping other jobs to accommodate these “hot” jobs, disrupting the flow and creating more “hot” jobs.  The system becomes jerky and the system dissolves into firefighting.

Resource Model

Companies that utilize an automated method for factory scheduling typically use an approach based on a resource model of the factory.   A resource model is comprised of a list of critical resources with time slots allocated to tasks that must be processed by the resource based on estimated task times.   The resource list includes machines, fixtures, workers, etc., that are required for production.   The following is a Gantt chart depicting simple resource model with four resources (A, B, C, D) and two jobs (blue, red).  The blue job has task sequence A, D, and B, and the red job has task sequence A and B.

The resources in a resource model are defined by a state that can be busy, idle, or off-shift.  When a resource is busy with one task or off-shift, other tasks must wait to be allocated to the resource (e.g. red waits for blue on resource A).  The scheduling tools that are based on a resource model all share this same representation of the factory capacity and differ only in how tasks are assigned to the resources.

The problem that all these tools share is an overly simplistic constraint model.   Although this model may work in some simple applications, there are many constraints in factories that can’t be represented by a simple busy, idle, off-shift state for a resource.  Consider the following examples:

• A system has two cranes (A and B) on a runway that are used to move aircraft components to workstations.   Although crane A is currently idle, it is blocked by crane B and therefore cannot be assigned the task.
• A workstation on production line 1 is currently idle and ready to begin a new task.   However, this workstation has only limited availability when a complex operation is underway on adjacent line 2.
• An assembly operator is required for completing assembly.   There are assembly operators currently idle, but the same operator that was assigned to the previous task must also be used on this task, and that operator is currently busy.
• A setup operator is required for this task.  The operator is idle but is in the adjacent building and must travel to this location before setup can start.
• The tasks involve the flow of fluid through pipes, valves, and storage/mixing tanks, and the flow is limited by complex rules.
• A job requires treatment in an oven, the oven is idle but not currently at the required temperature.

This is just a few examples of typical constraints for which a simple busy, idle, off-shift resource model is inadequate.  Every factory has its own set of such constraints that limit the capacity of the facility.

The scheduling tools that utilize a simple resource model allocate tasks to the resources using one of three basic approaches; heuristics, optimization, and simulation.

One common heuristic is job-sequencing that begins with the highest priority job, and assigns all tasks for that job, and repeats this process for each job until all jobs are scheduled (in the previous example blue is sequenced, then red).  This simple approach to job sequencing can be done in either a forward direction starting with the release date, or a backward direction starting with the due date.   Note that backward sequencing (while useful in master planning) is typically problematic in detailed scheduling because the resulting schedule is fragile and any disruption in the flow of work will create a tardy job.  This simple one-job-at-a-time sequencing heuristic cannot accommodate complex operating rules such as minimizing changeovers or running production campaigns based on attributes such as size or color.  However, there have been many different heuristics developed over time to accommodate special application requirements.  Examples of scheduling tools that utilize heuristics include Preactor from Siemens and PP/DS from SAP.

The second approach to assigning tasks to resources in the resource model is optimization, in which the task assignment problem is formulated as a set of sequencing constraints that must be satisfied while meeting an objective such as minimizing tardiness or cost.   The mathematical formulation is then “solved” using a Constraint Programming (CP) solver.  The CP solver uses heuristic rules for searching for possible task assignments that meet the sequencing constraints and improve the objective.  Note that there is no algorithm that can optimize the mathematical formulation of the task assignment for the resource model in a reasonable time (this problem is technically classified as NP Hard), and hence the available CP solvers rely on heuristics to find a “practical” but not optimal solution.   In practice, the optimization approach has limited application because often long run times (hours) are required to get to a good solution.   Although PP/DS incorporates the CP solver from ILOG to assign tasks to resources, most installations of PP/DS rely on the available heuristics for task assignments.

The third approach to assigning tasks in the simple resource model is a simulation approach.   In this case we simulate the flow of jobs through the resource model of the factory and assign tasks to available resources using dispatching rules such as smallest changeover or earliest completion.   This approach has several advantages over the optimization approach.   First, it executes much faster, producing a schedule in minutes instead of hours.  Another key advantage is that it can support custom decision logic for allocating tasks to resources.  An example of tool that utilizes this approach is Preactor 400 from Siemens.

Regardless which approach is used to assign tasks to resources, the resulting schedule assumes away all random events and variation in the system.  Hence the resulting schedules are optimistic and lead to overpromising of delivery times to customers.  These tools provide no mechanism for assessing the related risk with the schedule.

Digital Twin

The third and latest approach to factory scheduling is a process Digital Twin of the factory.  A Digital Twin is a digital replica of the processes, equipment, people, and devices that make up the factory and can be used for both system design and operation.  The resources in the system not only have a busy, idle, and off-shift state, but they are objects that have behaviors and can move around the system and interact with the other objects in the model to replicate the behavior and detailed constraints of the real factory. The Digital Twin brings a new level of fidelity to scheduling that is not available in the existing resource-based modeling tools.

Simio Digital Twin

The Simio Digital Twin is an object-based, data driven, 3D animated model of the factory that is connected to real time data from the ERP, MES, and related data sources.   We will now summarize the key advantages of the Simio Digital Twin as a factory scheduling solution.

Dual Use: System Design and Operation

Although the focus here is on enhancing throughput and on-time delivery by better scheduling using the existing factory design, unlike traditional scheduling tools, the Simio Digital Twin can also be used to optimize the factory deign.  The same Simio model that is used for factory scheduling can be used to test our changes to the facility such as adding new equipment, changing staffing levels, consolidating production steps, adding buffer inventory, etc.

Actionable Schedules

A basic requirement of any scheduling solution is that it provide actionable schedules that can implemented in the real factory.   If a non-actionable production schedule is sent to the factory floor, the production staff have no choice to be ignore the schedule and make their own decisions based on local information.

For a schedule to be actionable, it must capture all the detailed constraints of the system.  Since the foundation of the Simio Digital Twin is an object-based modeling tool, the factory model can capture all these constraints in as much detail as necessary.  This includes complex constraints such as material handling devices, complex equipment, workers with different skill sets, and complex sequencing requirements,

In many systems there are operating rules that have been developed over time to control the production processes.  These operating rules are just as important to capture as the key system constraints; any schedule that ignores these operating rules is non-actionable.  The Simio modeling framework has flexible rule-based decision logic for implementing these operating rules.  The result is an actionable schedule that respects both the physical constraints of the system as well as the standard operating rules.

Fast Execution

In most organizations, the useful life of a schedule is short because unplanned events and variation occur that make the current schedule invalid.   When this occurs, a new schedule must be regenerated and distributed as immediately as possible, to keep the production running smoothly.  A manual or optimization-based approach to schedule regeneration that takes hours to complete is not practical; in this case the shop floor operators will take over and implement their own local scheduling decisions that may not aligned with the system-wide KPIs.  When random events occur, the Simio Digital Twin can quickly respond and generate and distribute a new actionable schedule.  Schedule regeneration can either be manually triggered by the scheduler, or automatically triggered by events in the system.

3D Animated Model and Schedule

In other scheduling systems the only graphical view of the model and schedule is the resource Gantt chart.  In contrast, the Simio Digital Twin provides a powerful communication and visualization of both the model structure and resulting schedule.  Ideally, anyone in the organization – from the shop floor to the top floor – should be able to view and understand the model well enough to validate its structure.  A good solution improves not only the ability to generate an actionable schedule, but to visualize it and explain it across all levels of the organization.

The Simio Gantt chart has direct link to the 3D animated facility; right click on a resource along the time scale in the Gantt view and you instantly jump to an animated view of that portion of facility – showing the machines, workers, and work in process at that point in time in the schedule.  From that point you can simulate forward in time and watch the schedule unfold as it will in the real the system.  The benefits of the Simio Digital Twin begin with its accurate and fast generation of an actionable schedule.  But the benefits culminate in the Digital Twins ability to communicate its structure, its model logic, and its resulting schedules to anyone that needs to know.

Risk Analysis

One of the key shortcomings of scheduling tools is their inability to deal with unplanned events and variation.   In contrast, the Simio Digital Twin can accurately model these unplanned events and variations to not only provide a detailed schedule, but also analyze the risk associated with the schedule.

When generating a schedule, the random events/variations are automatically disabled to generate a deterministic schedule.  Like other deterministic schedules it is optimistic in terms of on time completions.  However, once this schedule is generated, the same model is executed multiple times with the events/variation enabled, to generate a random sampling of multiple schedules based on the uncertainty in the system.   The set of randomly generated schedules is then used to derive risk measures – such as the likelihood that each order will ship on time.  These risk measures are directly displayed on the Gantt Gannt chart and in related reports.   This let’s the scheduler know in advance which orders are risky and take action to make sure important orders have a high likelihood of shipping on time.

Constraint Analysis

It’s not uncommon that the supply chain planning process which is based on a rough-cut capacity model of the factory sends more work to a production facility than can be easily produced given the true capacity and operational constraints of the facility.   When this occurs, the resulting detailed schedule will have one or more late jobs and/or jobs with high risk of being late.   The question then arises as to what actions can be taken by the scheduler to ensure that the important jobs all delivered on schedule.

Although other scheduling approaches generate a schedule, the Simio Digital Twin goes one step further by also providing a constraint analysis detailing all the non-value added (NVA) time that is spent by each job in the system.  This includes time waiting for a machine, an operator, material, a material handling device, or any other constraint that is impeding the production of the item.   Hence if the schedule shows that an item is going to be late, the constraint analysis shows what actions might be taken to reduce the NVA time and ship the product on time.  For example, if the item spends a significant time waiting for a setup operation, scheduling overtime for that operator may be warranted.

Multi-Industry

Although scheduling within the four walls of a discrete production facility is an important application area, there are many scheduling applications beyond discrete manufacturing.   Many manufacturing applications involve fluid flows with storage/mixing tanks, batch processing, as well as discrete part production.  In contrast to other scheduling tools that are limited in scope to discrete manufacturing, the Simio Digital Twin has been applied across many different application areas including mixed-mode manufacturing, and areas outside of manufacturing such as logistics and healthcare.  These applications are made possible by the flexible modeling framework of Simio RPS.

Flexible Integration

A process Digital Twin is a detailed simulation model that is directly connected to real time system data. Traditional simulation modeling tools have limited ability to connect to real time data from ERP, MES, and other data sources.  In contrast, Simio RPS is designed from the ground up with data integration as a primary requirement.

Simio RPS supports a Digital Twin implementation by providing a flexible relational in-memory data set that can directly map to both model components and to external data sources.  This approach allows for direct integration with a wide range of data sources while enabling fast execution of the Simio RPS model.

Data Generated Models

In global applications there are typically multiple production facilities located around the world that produce the same products.  Although each facility has its own unique layout there is typically significant overlap in terms of resources (equipment, workers, etc.) and processes.   In this case Simio RPS provides special features to allow the Digital Twin for each facility to be automatically generated from data tables that map to modeling components that describe the resources and processes.   This greatly simplifies the development of multiple Digital Twins across the enterprise and also supports the reconfiguring of each Digital Twin via data table edits to accommodate ongoing changes in resources and/or processes.

# Forward Scheduling: What is it and how does it differ from backwards scheduling?

Simio is a forward scheduling simulation engine.  We do not support backwards scheduling.  We have found the backwards scheduling approach fails to represent reality, thus generating an infeasible plan that is unhelpful to planners.  Many of our customers have learned this lesson the hard way.

The underlying principle of forward scheduling is feasibility first.  A schedule is built looking forwards considering all the constraints and conditions of the system (e.g., resource availability, inventory levels, work in progress, etc.).  The schedule is optimized in run time while only considering the set of feasible choices available at that time.  Decisions are made according to user specified dispatching rules (the same as backwards scheduling).  The output is a detailed schedule that reflects what is possible and tells the planner how to achieve it.  As in real life, a planner can only choose when to start an operation.  Completion date is an outcome, not a user specified input.

The most salient technical difference between the two approaches is material availability (both raw and intermediate manufactured materials).  A forward-looking schedule makes no assumptions.  If materials are available, a finished good can be produced.  Otherwise, it cannot.  If the materials must be ordered or manufactured, the system will order them or manufacture them before the finished good can start.  A backwards schedule plans the last operation first, assuming that materials will be available (*we have yet to find an environment where future inventory can be accurately forecast).  If the materials must be produced or purchased, it will try to schedule or order them prior, hoping that the start date isn’t yesterday.  If the clock is wound backwards from due date all the way to present time, the resulting schedule shows the planner what their current stockpile and on-order inventory would have to be to execute the idealized plan.  It does not tell the planner what they could do with their actual stockpile and on-order inventory.

Next consider a situation where demand exceeds plant capacity (this is reality for most of our customers).  The plant cannot produce everything that the planner wants.  The planner must choose amongst the alternatives and face the tradeoffs.  Forward scheduling deals with this situation by continuing to schedule into the future, past the due date, showing the planner which orders will be late.  By adjusting the dispatching rules, priorities, and the release dates, the planner can improve the schedule until they reach a satisfactory alternative.  Every alternative is a valid choice and feasible for execution.  Backwards scheduling deals with this situation by continuing to schedule into the past, showing the planner which orders should have been produced yesterday.  The planner must tweak and adjust dispatching rules and due dates until finding a feasible alternative.  In our experience, the planner can make the best decision by comparing multiple feasible plans, rather than searching for a single one.

Any complete scheduling solution must also be capable of rescheduling.  Rescheduling can be triggered by any number of random events that occur daily.  In rescheduling, the output must respect work in progress.  Forward scheduling loads WIP first, making the resource unavailable until the WIP is complete.  Backwards scheduling loads WIP last, if at all.  Imagine building a weekly schedule backwards in time, hoping that the “ending” point exactly equals current plant WIP.  The result is often infeasible.

In terms of feasibility, the advantages of forward scheduling are clear.  But we also get questions about optimization, particularly around JIT delivery.  A quick Google search on forward scheduling reveals literature and blog posts that describe forward scheduling “As early as possible” (meaning a forward schedule starts an operation as soon as a resource is available, regardless of when the order is due).  This is false.  Forward scheduling manages the inventory of finished goods the same way the plant does.  A planner specifies a release date as a function of due date (or in some cases specifies individual release dates for each order).  In forward scheduling, no order is started prior to release date.  The power of this approach is experimentation.  Changing lead time is as easy as typing in a different integer and rescheduling.  As above, the result is a different feasible alternative which makes the tradeoff transparent.  Shorter lead times minimize inventory of finished goods but increase late deliveries and vice versa.  We have found many customers focus on short lead times based on financial goals rather than operational goals.  Inventory ties up cash.  Typically, the decision to focus on cash is made without quantifying the tradeoff.  We provide decision makers with clear cut differences between operational strategies so that they can choose based on complete information.

Forward scheduling is reality.  It properly represents material flows and constraints, plant capacity, and work in progress.  It manages the plant the same way a planner does.  Accordingly, it generates sets of feasible alternatives that quantify tradeoffs for planners and executive decision makers alike.  It answers the question “What should the plant do next?” as opposed to “What should the plant have done before?”  We’ve found the feasibility first approach is the most helpful to a planner and therefore the most valuable to a business.

# Integrating Digital Transformation to Enhance Overall Equipment and Facility Efficiency

The digital transformation of traditional business process and the assets that run them have become one of the raves of the moment. A Forbes-backed research highlights just how popular the topic of digital transformation and the tools needed to accomplish it has become. Statistics like the fact that 55% of business intended to adopt digitization strategies in 2018 which grew to 91% in 2019 highlights just how popular this transformation has become.

The reason for its increased adoption rate is the ease it brings to managing business operations, facilitating growth, and a healthy return on investments made on digital transformation. The numbers from the 2019 digital business survey prove these benefits outlined earlier to be true. 35% of organizations have experienced revenue growth while 67% believe it has helped them deliver better services to customers. But despite its popularity, the adoption of digital transformation brings up a multitude of question many enterprises still struggle to answer. This post will answer some of the more important questions with special emphasis on facility management and efficiency.

## What is Digital Transformation?

Digital transformation refers to the integration of digital technologies into business operations to change how an enterprise operates and delivers value to its customers or clients. Digital technologies generally refer to devices and tools that enable access to the internet thus its use allows organizations to bring operational processes to cyberspace.

The above definition is a simpler version of what digital transformation is about but because digital transformation looks different for every company and industrial niche, other definitions exist. In terms of enhancing equipment and facility efficiency levels, the definition by the Agile Elephant better encapsulates its meaning. Here, digital transformation is defined as digital practices that ‘involve a change in leadership thinking, the encouragement of innovation and new business models, incorporating digitization of assets, and increased use of technology to improve an organizations entire operations.’

In facility management, assets refer to the equipment, tools, and operation stations within the facility while new business models and innovation refer to the integration of digital technology concepts. These concepts can be the digital twin, discrete event simulation or predictive analysis.

## What is Overall Equipment and Facility Efficiency?

Productivity within manufacturing facilities and warehouses are generally measured using the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) concept. This concept measures the maximum output machines can achieve and compares subsequent output to the optimized value. In cases where the machine or equipment falls short, the OEE falls from 100% and the production cycle may be termed unproductive.

The OEE is calculated using three separate components within facilities and these are:

• Availability – This focuses on the percentage of scheduled time an operation is available to function.
• Performance – This refers to the speed at which work centers compared to the actual speed it was designed to achieve
• Quality – This refers to the number of goods produced and the quality levels compared to optimal production qualities.

Although the OEE process is quite popular and has proved to be efficient, a critical analysis shows that it does not take into consideration some important metrics. OEE calculations do not include the state of the shop floor, material handling processes, and connections to both upstream and downstream performances. This is why its effectiveness as a measuring tool has been lampooned by a plethora of manufacturers with skin in the game.

Criticism of OEE as a performance measurement tool include its lack of ability to breakdown or access granular information in facilities and its lack of multi-dimensionality. The fact that it struggles with identifying real areas that require improvement within facilities is also a deterrent to its efficiency in analyzing factory performances. And this is where digital transformation comes into play.

## Digital Transformation and its Ability to Enhance Facility Efficiency

The ability to digitize assets within manufacturing shop floors have created an environment where granular data can be collected from the deepest parts of today’s facilities. With the data collected due to digital transformation, a clearer picture of how a facility function can be gotten. But the digitization of traditional manufacturing processes and operations have also been a source of debate for diverse professionals due to certain difficulties. These difficulties include assessing data from legacy or dumb assets, managing communications across diverse supply chains, and bringing captured data together to make sense of complex facility operations.

To manage these challenges, diverse emerging technologies have been built around each of them. In terms of capturing data from legacy assets, the use of smart edge technologies that can be attached to assets is currently eliminating this challenge. While standards and communication protocols such as those from the OPC foundation is solving the issue of communication across both smart and dumb assets. Finally, to make sense from the captured data in order to enhance shop floor activities, digital twin technology provides a streamlined approach to monitoring and managing facilities using captured data.

With these emerging technologies, detailed insight at the granular level can be assessed about a particular facility. More importantly, these technologies attached to digital transformation can be used to enhance operational processes by delivering real-time scheduling, analyzing complex processes, and simulating applicable solutions to manufacturing shortcomings.

## Discrete Event Simulation and Enhancing Facility Efficiency

Discrete event simulation (DES) tools such as Simio are some of the emerging technologies that play important roles in transforming traditional factory or facility processes. The introduction of DES can help with mapping out previous event schedules to create optimized scheduling templates that can speed up production processes.

DES tools or software can analyze both minor processes that are subsets of a large one, as well as, the entire complex system to produce schedules that optimize these processes. An example of this was the integration of Simio by Diamond-Head Associates, a steel tubing manufacturing company. The challenges the steel tubing manufacturer faced involved meeting production schedules due to a very complex production process with hundreds of production variables.

With the aid of Simio simulation software and the digital transformation it brings, Diamond-Head associates were able to utilize the large data sets produced by the varying production processes. With this simulation model, optimized schedules built for its manufacturing processes were created and this helped with making real-time businesses decisions. The steel tubing manufacturer successfully reduced the time it took to make a decision from an hour and a half to approximately 10 minutes.

This case study highlights how digital transformation can be used to enhance facility efficiency in diverse ways. These ways include optimizing scheduling procedures and drastically reducing the time needed to come up with accurate solutions to complex manufacturing-related scheduling processes.

## Enhancing Facility Productivity with the Digital Twin

Another aspect of digital transformation is the use of digital twin technologies to develop digital representations of physical objects and processes. It is important to note that the digital twin does more than a 3D scanner which simply recreates physical objects into digital models. With the digital twin, complex systems can be represented in digital form including the capture of data produced by assets within the system.

The digital twin ecosystem can also be used to conduct simulations that drive machine and facility performance, real-time scheduling, and predictive analytical processes. Thus highlighting how digital transformation provides a basis for receiving business insights that change the leadership of an organization thinks and make decisions.

An example that highlights the application of digital twin technology to enhance productivity or facility efficiency is that of CKE Holdings Inc. CKE Holdings is the parent company of restaurants such as Hardee’s and Carl’s Jr. Earlier this year, the enterprise was interested in providing efficient shop floors or restaurant spaces for its employees to increase productivity levels, train new employees, and deliver better services to its customers. To achieve its aims, the organization turned to the digital twin and augmented reality to aid its business processes.

Once again, it is worth noting that both the digital twin and virtual reality tools are digital transformation tools. And with these tools, CKE Holdings Inc. succeeded in developing optimized restaurants with shop floor plans that played to the strength of its employees. The digital twin was also used to test and implement new products at a much faster rate than the traditional processes previously employed by the enterprise.

The end result was a user-friendly kitchen layout that delivered innovation in how CE Holdings restaurants function. The use of augmented reality also added another dimension to the training of new employees. The use of technology ensured new employees learnt through live practical involvement without any of the consequences attached to failure. This also reduced the hours experienced workers spent getting new employees up to speed within the restaurants. Thus highlighting another aspect in which digital transformation can be applied to drive facility efficiency levels.

## The Benefits of Digital Transformation to Manufacturing and Production-Based Facilities

The examples outlined already spell out the benefits of digital transformation and its role in enhancing overall equipment and facility effectiveness levels. But, it is only right to compare and highlight what digital transformation brings to the table against the traditional OEE calculations still used within many shop floors.

• A Complete Picture – Unlike OEE calculations which rely solely on manufacturing data produced from equipment and tools, digital transformation technologies can capture every aspect of the production process. This includes capturing data from the diverse algorithms, scheduling details, assets, sub-systems, and events that occur within the shop floor. This makes the level of details provided by digital twin environments superior to analyzing and enhancing facility productivity.
• Improved Customer Strategy – Digital transformation enables the capture of data highlighting customer satisfaction with end products. This information can also be integrated into the manufacturing circle to ensure customers get nothing but the best service. This means with digital transformation the feedback of customers and employees can be used to enhance production facility processes.
• Improved Employee Retention Strategy – The manufacturing industry is notorious for its high employee turnover rate due to diverse factors that make it unattractive to the new generation of workers. The integration of digital transformation can enhance workplace layout, as well as, bring a more modern and captivating process to manufacturing. These enhancements can reduce the turnover rate and get the younger generation interested in manufacturing.
• Enabling Innovation – The increased adoption rate of industry 4.0 business concepts and models in manufacturing means businesses must adapt if they intend to retain their competitive edges. Digital transformation offers a pathway to innovating legacy business process and increasing an enterprise’s ability to stay competitive in a changing manufacturing industry.

## The Next Steps

The advantages digital transformation brings to enhancing facility efficiency comes with a butterfly effect that affects leadership, innovation, and problem-solving activities. Although the integration process involves technical knowledge of applying digital twin technologies and simulation software, these skills can be acquired with a little effort.

Simio Fundamentals Course offer businesses and other organizations with the opportunity to train staffs about digital transformation and its specific techniques. You can also choose to register employees to participate in the upcoming Simio Sync Digital Transformation 2020 Conference to learn more about digitally transforming your business processes and how to reap the rewards.

# Simio Sync Digital Transformation Conference 2020

Get Inspired – Stay Forward Thinking!

Simio LLC is delighted to announce once again that the opportunity to learn more about the state of simulation and digital twin technologies is here. And yet again, this promises to be one of the biggest simulation and digital twin of the year. Simio Sync Digital Transformation Conference will focus on digital transformation technologies and how enterprises can tap into Simio to unleash the digital potential of business processes.

The event will be taking place on the 4th and 5th of May 2020 in Pittsburgh with advanced training about using Simio from the 6th to 8th of May. The first event will introduce you to Simio, the recent updates in Simio 12, and its application across industries. Keynote speeches and event programs will consist of Simio use cases and application across industries of interest. But before delving into the opportunities of the 2020 conference, here is a recap of 2019.

## Simio Sync 2019 – A Recap

The 2019 Simio Sync conference was the third annual event on simulation and digital transformation built around Simio technologies and solutions. The event brought together an ensemble of experienced speakers to inspire the crowd on the role of simulation and digital transformation in the real-world. Speakers included; Chris Tonn from SPIRIT Aero systems, Ian Shillinger from Mckinsey & Company, Antonio Rodriguez from the National Institute of Health (NIH), and Dusan Sormaz from the University of OHIO among others.

Each speaker presented case studies highlighting the application of Simio within the aviation industry, manufacturing, healthcare, education, hospitality, and simulation engineering. These events proved inspiring to participants from varying industries and opened up new possibilities about applying Simio within their specific industries.

According to Jarred Thome, from USPS, his first Simio Sync event was an eye-opener in many ways. He said “This was my first year attending the conference and I was blown away by the extent to which the folks at Simio went to ensure it was a success. The content, presenters and networking opportunities were all top-notch and the Simio staff was always accessible and willing to chat. I will definitely be coming back.”

The 2019 event was one of a kind and next year’s event is expected to take things up a notch. The Simio Sync Digital Transformation Conference will consist of speakers from Fortune 500 companies willing to share their experiences with digital transformation using Simio with you. The event will also serve as a networking arena for stakeholders within the simulation and digital transformation community and participants.

All you need to know about the Simio Sync Digital Transformation Conference for 2020 will be highlighted here. In the meantime, you can sign up with Simio to receive conference updates and to register as a participant today.

## Why Attend?

The fourth annual Simio Sync conference gives you the choice to learn, no matter the role you play in your company’s digitization efforts. At the end of the days, you will work away with the knowledge to help you and your company refine your digital transformation strategy to reap the rewards digitization brings.

If networking is your thing, how about coming to listen and catch up with individuals from fortune 500 companies among others. Through the years, Simio conferences have been fertile grounds for communicating and building relationships and this year’s event will be no different.

Simio Sync Digital Transformation provides an excellent opportunity to learn about simulation and its application in the real-world. Attending the event can help kick start your company’s digital transformation or refine transformation strategies to meet your defined goals. Thus, everyone is invited to attend, network, get inspired, and create fun memories while learning about digital transformation!

## Code of Conduct

Simio Sync Digital Transformation conferences are safe spaces created for everyone interested in the digital twin, simulation, scheduling, and digitization. The event is open to everyone and the conference areas are safe, inviting, and supportive.

Simio representatives are also available in every location to ensure your participation is a memorable one. If you are in need of answers to Simio-related questions or event-related questions, you can reach out to a representative and your questions will be answered.

With the increasing number of participants, the golden rule of mutual understanding also applies. This will help you build better networks, and truly take advantage of the different sessions, and labs that are parts of the event.

## Registration

Registration is now open. You can now take advantage of early bird tickets to become one of the first individuals or organizations to register for the Simio Sync Digital Transformation Conference for 2020. There are a plethora of excellent hotels and living areas around the event holding in Pittsburgh and the earlier you register, the quicker you will be about planning your travel and relaxation itinerary.

To register, visit the Simio Sync event page and go through the registration process. The process is quite straightforward and intuitive to accomplish. You will also have the choice of registering for the conference event and adding advanced training options to your registration form.

## Session Catalog

The Simio Sync session catalog is the ultimate guide you need to navigate through the conference while bookmarking areas you are particularly interested in. The session catalog is currently live and you can browse through it while registering.

This year, there are approximately eight unique sessions divided across networking breaks to ensure you take advantage of your participation. The sessions include diverse keynote speeches from leading digital transformation experts and Simio engineers. To get a real-world feel of the application of Simio and digital transformation processes, case study sessions and presentations are also part of the event catalog.

Other exciting events of note which you are also welcome to participate in includes the Simio Pittsburgh exploration event where you and your spouse can line up with Simio Spouses to explore the ancient city of Pittsburgh. If you are a running enthusiast, you can also choose to participate with Simio in the Pittsburgh marathon before the conference begins. These are part of the fun activities lined up for you!

## Advanced Training and Hands-on Labs

The advanced training event will take place on the 6th to the 8th of May. This training focuses on the application of Simio in the real-world. Thus, you will be introduced to the different features of Simio and how they can be applied to drive digital transformations, simplify discrete event scheduling, and build digital twins of physical processes.

The advanced training program will be a boon for organizations currently using Simio and others who are interested in using it to drive digital transformation strategies. Individuals interested in digital transformation are also welcome. The hands-on lab integrates the use of case studies and the Simio interface to ensure you understand every aspect of the digital transformation process with Simio.

## Networking

Tens of industry-leading organizations and individuals have already reserved their spots for the Simio Sync Digital Transformation conference. And come the 4th of May 2020, you too can pick the brains of your favorite personalities within the aviation, hospitality, education, healthcare, automotive, automation, manufacturing, and pharmaceutical industries.

Participants from Lockheed Martin, Air Canada, Boeing, BAE Systems, OHIO University, United States Postal Services, Exxon Mobil, Roche, FedEx, Honeywell, American Airlines etc. will be there. The networking dinner and entertainment sessions at 6pm create an excellent opportunity to build interpersonal relationships for the future.

## Conclusion

To get the best out of the Simio Sync Digital Transformation Conference, we recommend that you participate in at least one of the following programs:

• Participate in at least one hands-on training covering the use of Simio.
• Bookmark and participate in a keynote session highlighting the use of Simio for your industry or related industry
• Wear comfortable shoes and cover grounds during the networking dinner and entertainment opportunities within the conference.
• Talk with others and explore Pittsburgh!

# Industry 4.0 Revolution: Understanding the Digital Twin and Its Benefits

The world is moving toward an era of more efficient business operations driving by automation. This was one of the key messages of Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems CEO, Paul Browning, at the just concluded 2019 CERAWeek held in Houston. Paul Browning, who was the keynote speaker on the ‘digital transformation agenda’, spoke about Mitsubishi’s use of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and digital Twin technologies to create the world’s first autonomous power plant.  He ended his speech by saying ‘Mitsubishi is building the world’s first autonomous power plant capable of self-healing.’

The use of digital transformation technology to eliminate downtime and reduce unplanned shutdowns are just a few of what can be accomplished with Digital Twin technologies. In fact, the ability to virtualize workspaces and complex systems have important roles to play in achieving the smart factory and Industry 4.0 revolution the most industries dream off. This is because no other emerging technology has the potential to bridge the gap between the physical world driven by machines and the virtual world like the Digital Twin. This is why the Digital Twin market is forecasted to be worth approximately \$26billion by 2025.

While the numbers highlight the growing acceptance of Digital Twin solutions, many businesses are a bit skeptical about its implementation and benefits. This is why practical case studies are needed to highlight the application of the Digital Twins and how others have benefited from it.

## The Most Important Benefits of Digital Twin Technology

Industry 4.0 business model relies on data to automate business processes. The Digital Twin, in turn, creates the perfect environment for collecting data from every aspect of the manufacturing process for analytics and simulation. When data is accurately collected and a Digital Twin is designed, system integrators, data analysts, and other stakeholders can use it to drive business policies and improve decision-making processes. The benefits Industry 4.0 and manufacturers stand to gain from Digital Twins include:

Enhanced Plant Performance – Having the capacity to access and quantify every information produced from a manufacturing process and the shop floor is key to automation. Digital Twin technologies allow manufacturers collect data from the sensors and embedded systems integrated onto a shop floor. The Digital Twin also takes things a step further by replicating physical manufacturing processes and creating a digital environment where these processes can be assessed.

With the necessary data from equipment, machines, material handling, and production cycles in place, manufacturers can develop policies and run simulations to determine how efficient they are. Once determined, the manufacturing policies and regulations can then be applied on the shop floor. This gives large enterprises a cheaper way to access the effects of decisions on productivity levels.

A DHL study on the importance of Digital Twin in enhancing plant performance highlights the use of Digital Twin by Iveco solutions to optimize welding capabilities. The Iveco manufacturing line struggled with constant breakdown of its welding components which delayed production. The cause of these breakdowns were pin-pointed to a lamellar pack which wore out constantly. To enhance performance and reduce downtime, Iveco designed a Digital Twin model of its manufacturing line/

The Digital Twin model helped Iveco understand the different welding concepts and requirements, as well as, their effect on the lamellar pack. Using simulation and machine learning, Iveco developed an optimal welding process that could forecast the probability of component failures in other to reduce them.

Driven Predictive Maintenance –  One of the benefits of designing a Digital Twin of manufacturing shop floors or plants is the opportunity to integrate predictive maintenance into business models. Predictive maintenance involves the prediction of a component or machine failure and the taken of preemptive action to forestall failure. Digital Twin technology has created an environment that drives predictive maintenance across various systems.

Once again, The Mitsubishi Hitachi Power System plant serves as an example where Digital Twin technology can drive the predictive maintenance policy in Industry 4.0. The Digital Twin model created by Mitsubishi gives power plants the ability to monitor sensors and other parameters that determine the plant’s performance levels. On application, the Digital Twin, alongside AI, and machine learning provided insight on the best time to schedule maintenance activities without disrupting production.

The benefits Mitsubishi reaped from its use of Digital Twins include a more efficient way to discover fault components and a maintenance culture that reduced downtime. The autonomous plant was also able to run self-diagnostics and repair stuck valves that affected power generation. Smart facilities can take advantage of the Digital Twin to drive a predictive maintenance culture which will eliminate resource waste and downtime caused by faulty equipment.

Advanced Control of Complex Systems or Processes – Digital Twin ecosystems provide an avenue to control complex systems and processes in ways other traditional technologies can’t. This is because, AI, machine learning, and simulations can be applied to the digital environment thereby allowing enterprises to see farther. Digital Twin takes control process which involves comparing system performances with set standards, discover deviations, and design corrective actions to greater heights. This makes it a great resource for research in Industry 4.0.

An example of how Digital Twins makes advanced control of complex systems possible can be seen from how the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) deployed Digital Twin solutions. The Digital Twin of the (NETL) plant was used to carry out research on the use of carbon dioxide to power plants as a replacement to the hazardous coal-powered plants currently in use. The Digital Twin also mapped out the plant’s sensor network in other to optimize its use.

The Digital Twin created by the research team served as a virtual testbed for analyzing operational relationships and their effects on power generation. The benefits of Digital Twins, in this case, included a cheaper more effective way to analyze control process phenomena and reduce downtime. Increasing plant reliability and optimizing the use of resources were also singled out as benefits.

Easing Training and Onboarding Process – The future of Industry 4.0 is being driven by emerging technology solutions such as the industrial internet of things (IIoT), IoT, automated vehicles and equipment. This means to effectively take advantage of the benefits of Industry 4.0 older and new employees must be thought to function in a smart facility. Digital Twins of plant systems and processes provide a virtual environment for employees to learn about operational processes.

In a case study conducted in an automotive facility, employees were taught the repair and assembling process in a virtualized environment and through manuals. At the end of the training employees preferred the option of learning through virtualized environments and retained more information compared to learning from physical manuals. This means the hands-on learning approach driven by Digital Twin technology creates a better environment for learning complex process safely.

## Take Advantage of The Benefits of Digital Twins

The combination of Digital Twin technology and cloud computing has made the design, emulation, scheduling, analytics, and simulation services it offers even more affordable to end-users. Small and medium scale businesses can now access Digital Twin solutions to solve complex problems. This means Digital Twin as a Service is slowly but surely becoming an option for enterprises to explore. You can learn more about the Digital Twin opportunities for your business by contacting the experienced engineers at Simio.

Resources:

https://www.ice.org.uk/knowledge-and-resources/case-studies/digital-twins-for-building-flexibility-into-power

https://www.logistics.dhl/content/dam/dhl/global/core/documents/pdf/glo-core-digital-twins-in-logistics.pdf

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-04-09/forget-cars-mitsubishi-hitachi-sees-autonomous-power-plants

# Digital Twin Technology: 5 Challenges Businesses Face By Overlooking It

A Disruptive technology is a product, concept or service that has the ability to redefine the traditional way of doing things.  Today, the digital twin concept is being hailed as a disruptive technology with the capacity to change how we design, solve complex problems and collaborate. In fact, a Gartner Report predicted that by 2021 approximately 50% of industrial companies will integrate the use of digital twin technologies to increase workforce performance and manufacturing efficiency. So, what is this disruptive technological concept?

The Digital Twin refers to a real-time replica of a physical entity. This entity could be a living thing, an inanimate physical object, as well as, assets, processes and systems that function in the physical world or environment. Although this concept is actually three decades old, the convergence of emerging technologies such as the internet of things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning has taken it to new heights. Digital twins juxtapose these emerging technologies to create digital models of physical entities with the ability to simulate real-time changes that occur to the physical model.

An example of how this concept work involve the development of the digital twin of an aircraft. With the digital twin, finite element analysis (FEA) can be applied to determine the fatigue limit of the aircraft’s structure. The results of this simulation can then be used to design or choose more suitable materials or design for a more durable aircraft. Outside manufacturing, digital twins can be employed in diverse industries including healthcare to simulate how the human body reacts to external forces. The benefits of integrating digital twins include increased design efficiency, enhancing predictive analysis, and collaboration.  This is why the market for it is expected to hit approximately \$15billion by 2023. The benefits of digital twins are huge but the challenges business will face not embracing it is even bigger.

• The challenges businesses face not integrating the digital twin in business operations.
• The effects of not embracing the digital twin.
• The disruptive capabilities of the digital twin.

## The Five Challenges Businesses Face Not Embracing Digital Twins

With approximately 50% of industrial companies integrating the use of digital twins, the 50% who don’t will definitely be losing their competitive edge. This is because the digital twin will redefine real-time simulation applications in ways the average 3D modelling software or Building Information Modelling platform can’t aspire to. The challenges to expect include:

Keeping Legacy Solutions, Designs or Data – As the generation of baby boomers continue to retire daily, the probability of losing the knowledge that built legacy equipment and systems could be lost. This includes the Mylar copies of traditional manufacturing equipment or the designs of legacy military aircraft. Regardless of technological advancements, the loss of legacy data destroys the foundations newer prototypes were built on.

With the aid of the digital twin concept, businesses across every industry, can create an accurate digital model of legacy equipment or solutions. The digital model can then be stored for posterity sake or analyzed with the aim of developing upgraded prototypes. Models can also be used as materials for training the younger generation of workers through virtual reality environments.

Enhancing Lean Manufacturing Processes – Toyota’s integration of lean manufacturing to speed up production while efficiently using resources has become folklore in the automotive industry. The integration of lean manufacturing models – which were disruptive at that time – helped Toyota dominate the industry for decades. This is the leverage the digital twin concept offers. The ability to optimize entire product value chains is something that can be achieved in real-time through the digital twin.

A study at the Bayreuth University, Germany focused on analyzing the impact of digital twins in collecting real-time data and optimizing production systems. The study compared the efficiency of digital twins and the commonly used value stream mapping solutions. In the end, the results showed that digital twins exceeded traditional solutions in data acquisition, automated derivation of optimization measures, and the capturing of motion data. These data which are crucial to optimizing production could also be utilized in a digital twin environment to optimize diverse processes. Thus, shunning digital twins will leave firms in the lurch while competitors who leverage this concept can optimize production variables in real-time.

Limitations in the Integration and Use of Data – The Industry 4.0 revolution currently going on relies heavily on the collection and use of data to receive important business insight and automate processes. The tools or applications currently used today are enterprise relationship management software, and industrial cloud solutions. Although these solutions do excellently well in collecting data from smart or industrial internet of things (IIoT) devices, they still struggle with collecting data from legacy or dumb equipment. This limits the penetration of Industry 4.0 in the deepest layers of manufacturing shop floors which is what the OPC Foundation intends to solve.

Digital twin concepts can help smart factories integrate dumb equipment from the deepest levels of a shop floor into models of the manufacturing plant. This makes it possible to capture the hundreds of non-measured information in the shop floor into a digital environment thereby truly meeting Industry 4.0 and OPC UA standards. If successfully done, the digital twin with the captured data can be used to predict the facilities transient response to external disturbances, equipment failure, and system malfunctions.

Manufacturers who overlook digital twin concepts will be stuck with using data from only smart equipment and IoT devices to track real-time changes on the shop floor. The limitations associated with not capturing non-measured data will lead to approximations when automating operations in a smart factory. This could lead to downtime, an inefficient workforce, and in extreme situations accidents to workers.

Limiting the Effectiveness of Predictive Analysis – Another important challenge shunning the integration of digital twins into industrial operations is the difficulties that come with making blind or half-informed changes. Making blind changes when making important decisions such as designing a new material handling system or reducing the number of processes needed to develop a product will have terrible consequences. These consequences will include wastage of resources, a subpar end product or confusion on the shop floor.

According to Gartner, downtime in the manufacturing industry could lead to huge losses. In the automotive industry alone, downtime is responsible for a loss of \$22,000 per minute. Although the numbers may be less in other industries, the effects are still considerable. Digital twins can help eliminate these challenges or losses by helping businesses simulate the real-time effect of making certain changes. For example, a change of production schedule while going through a transition period would have left the aviation manufacturer Lockheed Martin unable to meet its delivery timelines. With the aid of the Simio simulation software, the manufacturer was able to make informed decisions that optimized the production process.

## Next Steps

The match to industry 4.0 and a more connected factory is one that must be planned for if manufacturers intend to remain competitive for the long run. One way to achieve this is by integrating a digital twin for simulating and receiving the insights needed to automate industrial processes. If properly executed, you will be turning the disruptive nature of the digital twin to your benefit.

Resources:

https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/prepare-for-the-impact-of-digital-twins/

https://news.thomasnet.com/companystory/downtime-costs-auto-industry-22k-minute-survey-481017

https://www.isw.uni-stuttgart.de/en/institute/highlights/digital-twin/

https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/prepare-for-the-impact-of-digital-twins/

# Simio now has the GSA Advantage!®

We are pleased to announce that Simio has been awarded the coveted U.S. General Service Administration (GSA) IT-70 contract for Government Services.

Simio’s object-oriented Simulation and Production Scheduling software is ideally suited for all aspects of state and local government use. Now, government agencies can more easily purchase Simio products and services for design, emulation and scheduling of their complex systems.

“We’re proud and excited to offer a straightforward solution for simulation needs,” says Anthony Innamorato, a former Platoon Commander of the U.S. Navy and the current Vice President of Customer Solutions at Simio LLC. “With Simio now being awarded a GSA contract, government employees can more easily access and utilize the power of Simio.”

Simio now proudly displays the GSA Starmark Logo on our website, along with our Contract Number: 47QTCA19D008W.

The GSA’s federal procurement approval process means that Simio’s product offering has been screened and accepted as the best possible simulation software, at a fair price, within our industry. This means that state and local government buyers and their agencies can order and buy with confidence. They can implement strategic purchases more easily to expedite acquisitions. It also means that they obtain best prices, at the same time ensuring Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) compliance.

Already major suppliers to the Government, Military and Department of Defense, Simio’s solutions encompass a broad set of issues related to production scheduling, supply chain and logistics, as well as resource staffing. Typical application areas include fleet sizing and design, refurbishment operations planning and overall process improvement using Lean concepts.

Simio simulation can assist in any scenario where modeling is needed to determine solutions or to improve communication of ideas and promote understanding. Our software can help make important decisions that are critical for the reduction of risk.

Applications for Simio’s simulation in the federal government environment include:

• large or complex systems with a great degree of process variability,
• critical situations where it is too expensive or risky to do live testing, and
• systems where data is missing or incomplete.

Find out more today about how you can order Simio via the GSA Advantage!®

# Production Planning Software and Industry 4.0

The latest era of industrial revolution – Industry 4.0 connects and revolutionizes various aspects of the industry including manufacturing processes as well as business processes such as supply chain. The increasing demand of customized product from the customer end is a major driving theme of this transformation in the industry. The traditional processes are highly efficient for batch production and low cost scaling in bulk manufacturing but are relatively time consuming inefficient for manufacturing customized products. Similar is the case for the business processes and models that being used around this manufacturing style. There is need of new production planning style which can simulate the costs, efficiency and resource requirements in real time for any product for mass customization.Industry 4.0 uses Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) and Internet of Things (IoT) to introduce technological and human improvements, which ultimately results in enhanced productivity, product quality with reduced manufacturing time and product price. Hence, the requirement of an advanced production planning and scheduling scheme becomes paramount. In this article,we will discuss how production planning can be implemented in Industry 4.0 and the ways in which it will help manufacturers of any and every product to adapt easily to customer demands and transition smoothly into the upcoming industrial economy.

Industry 4.0 brings along the requirement of new process and production planning where most of the working environment is automatized and the data recorded is processed using fog computing, on-premise clouds or cloud computing servers. Machine to Machine communication is expected to increase more than ever. These changes raise some critical questions and concerns regarding the manufacturing and planning processes:

• Is it possible to completely automatize production planning using CPS and IoT?
• Can human knowledge be translated into future products?

The role of Production Planning Software in Industry 4.0 will be to address these concerns effectively and ensure that the decision making processes involved in process selection, resource allocation, operation sequence and scheduling and sufficiently automatized with knowledge importer from previous processes. This should then result in the modeling of the future product including customer based customization demands as well.

Traditional process planning being used in many industries presently is completely based only on the knowledge and experience of the individual or team working on the system. The people working on the systems are technology experts from experience rather than knowledge. The existing demand for change to the new technology solutions can be a big transition for such individuals. This might slow down the progress of these industries, especially SMEs which are slower in the adaptation process. Hence, it is important for each industry to build their own strategy to implement Industry 4.0.

All the manufacturing resources in the industry are now connected to data and information exchange enabling better quality and process control. Scheduling of the product manufacturing and supply chain are being solved by using dynamic scheduling with the help of Structure Dynamics Control (SDC). Data and knowledge is transformed to software that makes a decision based on the technical specification of the order and available material combinations. This type of process planning has been adopted completely in very few industrial processes such as welding.It is still a challenge for many manufacturers to figure out what would be the optimal technique if an industry manufactures various products with different set of technologies. Also, the scaling of this single technology-single product scheme( e.g. welding) might not be easy on multiple types of products. Visualization of the process and predetermining the resource requirements will become more important. Simulation of the complete Production Planning using real time data can be an effective solution to this problem.Let us see how a product planning software can make the manufacturing process ’smarter’.

”Smart products” enable an industry to include information about customization demands of the consumer,collect feedback which can then be used in knowledge databases used in the various phases product design, development and manufacturing process. These include process planning, operation sequencing and scheduling. The collaboration of various product parameters and consumer needs in each stage of product development cycle allows the manufacturer to continuously improve the product quality and optimize the manufacturing costs effectively in real time. This results in an overall better product from both consumer and manufacturer’s point of view. Product Planning Software enable this whole cycle managing various processes starting from material selection, shape, geometry, operation priority, time of operation, machine cost and avail- ability and many more. The Product Planning can also be linked to the ERP( Enterprise Resource Planning Software) in the cloud to include insights and data to other parts of product lifecycle resulting in a better product with every iteration.

A good production planning software that automatizes the various tasks of the product development cycle is a must for mass customization and improved efficiency in Industry 4.0. Thus, it can be easily concluded that a good Planning Production Software will form a critical building block of the industry in Industry 4.0.

# The Evolution of the Industrial Ages: Industry 1.0 to 4.0

The modern industry has seen great advances since its earliest iteration at the beginning of the industrial revolution in the 18th century. For centuries, most of the goods including weapons, tools, food, clothing and housing, were manufactured by hand or by using work animals. This changed in the end of the 18th century with the introduction of manufacturing processes. The progress from Industry 1.0 was then rapid uphill climb leading up to to the upcoming industrial era – Industry 4.0. Here we discuss the overview of this evolution.

Industry 1.0 The late 18th century introduced mechanical production facilities to the world. Water and steam powered machines were developed to help workers in the mass production of goods. The first weaving loom was introduced in 1784. With the increase in production efficiency and scale, small businesses grew from serving a limited number of customers to large organizations with owners, manager and employees serving a larger number. Industry 1.0 can also be deemed as the beginning of the industry culture which focused equally on quality, efficiency and scale.

Industry 2.0 The beginning of 20th century marked the start of the second industrial revolution – Industry 2.0. The main contributor to this revolution was the development of machines running on electrical energy. Electrical energy was already being used as a primary source of power. Electrical ma- chines were more efficient to operate and maintain, both in terms of cost and effort unlike the water and steam based machines which were comparatively inefficient and resource hungry. The first assembly line was also built during this era, further streamlining the process of mass production. Mass production of goods using assembly line became a standard practice.

This era also saw the evolution of the industry culture introduced in Industry 1.0 into management program to enhance the efficiency of manufacturing facilities. Various production management techniques such as division of labor, just-in-time manufacturing and lean manufacturing principles refined the underlying processes leading to improved quality and output. American mechanical engineer Fredrick Taylor introduced the study of approached to optimize worker, workplace techniques and optimal allocation of resources.

Industry 3.0 The next industrial revolution resulting in Industry 3.0 was brought about and spurred by the advances in the electronics industry in the last few decades of the 20th century. The invention and manufacturing of a variety electronic devices including transistor and integrated circuits auto- mated the machines substantially which resulted in reduced effort ,increased speed, greater accuracy and even complete replacement of the human agent in some cases. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), which was first built in 1960s was one of the landmark invention that signified automation using electronics. The integration of electronics hardware into the manufacturing systems also created a requirement of software systems to enable these electronic devices, consequentially fueling the software development market as well. Apart from controlling the hardware, the software systems also enabled many management processes such as enterprise resource planning, inventory management, shipping logistics, product flow scheduling and tracking throughout the factory. The entire industry was further automated using electronics and IT. The automation processes and software systems have continuously evolved with the advances in the electronics and IT industry since then. The pressure to further reduce costs forced many manufacturers to move to low-cost countries. The dispersion of geographical location of manufacturing led to the formation of the concept of Supply Chain Management.

Industry 4.0 The boom in the Internet and telecommunication industry in the 1990’s revolutionized the way we connected and exchanged information. It also resulted in paradigm changes in the manufacturing industry and traditional production operations merging the boundaries of the physical and the virtual world. Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) have further blurred this boundary resulting in numerous rapid technological disruptions in the industry. CPSs allow the machines to communicate more intelligently with each other with almost no physical or geographical barriers.

The Industry 4.0 using Cyber Physical Systems to share, analyze and guide intelligent actions for various processes in the industry to make the machines smarter. These smart machines can continuously monitor,detect and predict faults to suggest preventive measures and remedial action. This allows better preparedness and lower downtime for industries. The same dynamic approach can be translated to other aspects in the industry such as logistics, production scheduling, optimization of throughput times, quality control, capacity utilization and efficiency boosting. CPPs also allow an industry to be completely virtually visualized, monitored and managed from a remote location and thus adding a new dimension to the manufacturing process. It puts machines,people, processes and infrastructure into a single networked loop making the overall management highly efficient.

As the technology-cost curve becomes steeper everyday, more and more rapid technology disruptions will emerge at even lower costs and revolutionize the industrial ecosystem. Industry 4.0 is still at a nascent stage and the industries are still in the transition state of adoption of the new systems.Industries must adopt the new systems as fast as possible to stay relevant and profitable. Industry 4.0 is here and it is here to stay, at least for the next decade.